Tag Archives: information seeking behavior

Information needs and behaviour of parents of children with autism spectrum disorders: parents’ reports on their experiences and perceptions

Article Authored By: Ivana Martinović and Ivanka Stričević

Reviewed by: Camille Hyatt, Richard Schock, Kate Lasky, Sandra Nunez Currier, and Nicole Cooksey-Voytenko

Link to article: http://www.informationr.net/ir/21-4/isic/isic1609.html

Review of “Information Needs and Behaviour of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Parents’ Reports on their Experiences and Perceptions” by Ivana Martinović and Ivanka Stričević


Article Synopsis and International Perspective
In a recent fact sheet entitled Autism Spectrum Disorders published November 2019 by the World Health Organization, rates of autism (ASD) among children are estimated to be as high as one in 165, while further noting that when examined longitudinally, this number appears to be steadily increasing. While public awareness of neurodiversity-related issues has grown, this awareness may be, in part, ascribed to increased diagnoses; regardless, public awareness has not kept pace with the rate of increase in diagnoses (Martinović & Stričević, 2016). Thus, significant information gaps remain among parents of children with ASD, both in developed countries where there are more avenues for ASD care and opportunities and in countries such as Croatia where much work in this area remains to be done (Martinović & Stričević, 2016).
Researchers Ivana Martinović and Ivanka Stričević sought to examine this subject from the perspective of Croatian parents of children recently diagnosed with ASD. They jointly presented the results of their study at the ISIC information behavior conference in Zadar, Croatia, in September 2016. The authors note the rising incidence of ASD and a concurrent lack of information on the topic available to parents of such children. Martinović and Stričević, utilizing a convenience sampling technique, identified 13 participants with children with ASD who were willing to engage with the researchers, sharing their experiences and information needs. As Martinović and Stričević note, the lack of previously gathered data among the Croatian populace points to a definite need for further studies.

Core Research Questions
Because there is no prior data as to information-seeking behavior for parents of children with ASD in Croatia, Martinović and Stričević begin their study with basic research questions, trying to discern the parents’ information needs. Interestingly, though they are defining information-seeking behavior, their aim is to “provide medical specialists with recommendations… [for] providing information to parents within the sphere of medical and social care,” (Martinović & Stričević, 2016) intimating that the “where” of Martinović’s and Stričević’s question, “where [do] they perform their searches[?]” is likely not the library, which is a shift in perspective. In the United States, for example, information-seeking behavior is generally considered by librarians, less by medical professionals. How much do American medical specialists consider the information-seeking behavior of their patients and families, and are they receptive to recommendations from outside researchers?
The research questions asked by Martinović and Stričević were:
What kind of information needs do parents of children with ASD have?
How do parents of children with ASD seek information that they need?
How do parents assess information they found?
What barriers do they face when seeking information? (Martinović & Stričević, 2016)
In observing this list of questions, there are noted holes in the research area of services provided for children with ASD, which would make for a strong follow-up to this study, and building blocks for ASD infrastructure in Croatia.

Study Methods
The study utilized a semi-structured interview that was audiotaped and transcribed for analysis purposes. The subjects interviewed were 13 parents whose children were diagnosed with ASD and between the ages of 3 ½ – 20 years old. Study data included the gender of the parent, the child’s age, and how long the child has been diagnosed with ASD.
Study participants were reached by the Association of Families of Children with Autism ‘Dar’ in Osijek, Croatia. Each participant was given a code for identification to keep their identity confidential. All of the interviews (~20 minutes in length) were subject to qualitative content analysis and translated into English.

Findings and Conclusions
Martinović and Stričević found that parents of children with ASD were looking for general facts about autism. Typically, these parents had no prior knowledge of what autism is, or how to deal with it. Initially, they wanted to know what it is, how it can be treated, what therapies are best, and what lies ahead for their child (Martinović & Stričević, 2016). Parents wanted to find out if their child would be able to go to a regular school, become independent, and have a normal life. Parents found the majority of their information on their own using the internet, books, other printed materials, professionals, and other parents with similar experiences. Parents did not receive adequate information from doctors and had to find it independently, often becoming overwhelmed with an overload of confusing information. The most trusted information came from other parents as well as specialists. To determine if the information was sound, they tested it on their own child to see the results. The sheer amount of information written in medical terms often contrasted one with the other, and the lack of ASD expertise or experience were reported as barriers for parents when searching for information.

What American Libraries Can Learn
American libraries can benefit from the global practice of research about parents of children with ASD. Ivana Martinović and Ivanka Stričević of the Croatian community highlight inequities in access that can be tested and possibly reflected in American communities. Concrete data around the information-seeking behavior of this community helps librarians provide access to needed information through taught search methods and in-house awareness of ASD services and organizations.
“Many results of this research match the findings of other researches from foreign countries. One can conclude that parents of children with ASD have the same information needs, regardless of the part of the world they come from” (Martinović & Stričević, 2016). American libraries and librarians can take away critical findings from the article for immediate practice, such as the importance of curating local resources and raising awareness about ASD within their communities to prevent inequities in access to information when it is most critical for parents. American libraries can also drive and participate in local research — “Hospital, higher education institutions and public libraries should conduct regular studies of the health information needs and information seeking behaviour of parents of children with ASD in order to equip their users with relevant health information” (Martinović & Stričević, 2016).


Martinović, I. & Stričević, I. (2016). Information Needs and Behaviour of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Parents’ Reports on their Experiences and Perceptions. Proceedings of ISIC, the Information Behaviour Conference, Zadar, Croatia, 20-23 September, 2016: Part 1. Information Research, 21(4), paper isic1609. Retrieved from http://InformationR.net/ir/21-4/isic/isic1609.html

World Health Organization, (2019, 7 November). Autism spectrum disorder. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/autism-spectrum-disorders

Differing Information Search Strategies by Japanese and Finnish Cultures

Reviewed By: Esther Chun, Amaris Mang, Tiffany Muñoz, Lisa Salyer, Kyle Shin, and Nhu-y Tran

Link to article: http://informationr.net/ir/15-4/paper451.html

Introduction and Synopsis
When one needs medical advice for weight loss and weight management, usually the first place most people turn to is the Internet. This is what it seems for the American culture, at least, but are the searching habits the same for all people from different cultures and different places, especially for those that exist outside of the United States? Do all individuals seek out information in the same way, and are there any differences when the subject is one of a highly personal nature? Do those international cultural differences show? This is the subject in Askola, Atsushi, and Huotari’s (2010) article titled “Cultural Differences in the Health Information Environments and Practices Between Finnish and Japanese University Students.”

International Perspective
The article represents an international perspective because it is focused on examining the cultural differences between university students from Finland and Japan who utilize the Internet in a technologically advanced health information environment. Since authors have ancestry from the two studied countries, the article presents a different perspective in understanding information-seeking behaviors and environments than strictly relying on an American perspective. Askola, Atsushi, and Huotari (2010) also noted in the introduction that it is more international than the previous study that inspired the current study in that the previous study was focused on the Finnish students’ information seeking processes.

Core Research Question
What are cultural differences in the health information environments and practices between Finnish and Japanese university students? How are the sources identified? Are they relevant to the main topic of the study? What are the limitations of the study?

To assess the health information-seeking behaviors of first-year university students in Finland and Japan, Askola, Atsushi, and Huotari (2010) decided to look closely at two of the four different modes presented by McKenzie (2003): active seeking, which “refers to situations in which a person looks for information with a particular question in mind,” and encountering, which “refers [to] situations in which a person comes across health information … by chance” (p. 26). The selected participants, who all had easy access to the Internet, were emailed a link to a questionnaire. It was originally written in Finnish, translated to English, and then Japanese. In this survey, students were first asked for some background information regarding age, sex, health status, Internet skills, and average time spent on the Internet each week. After answering additional questions about their preferences for web-based information sources, participants were either brought to the end or asked to continue on. The two questionnaires (one in Finnish and one in Japanese) differed in some areas, so there may be some inconsistencies with merging similar answers.

Findings and Conclusion
Research done by Askola, Atsushi, and Huotari (2010) reflected the health information environments and practices between Finnish and Japanese university students. The study focused
on web-based and non-web-based forms of information-seeking behaviors of Finnish and Japanese university students. Data for the study was collected utilizing a web-based survey targeting first-year Japanese and Finnish students. A total of 371 students comprising of 19.4% Japanese students and 81.6% Finnish students were studied. The age range of the students were 18 to 22 years old. Women comprised the majority of the study with 71% Finnish women and 68% Japanese women (Askola, Atsushi, & Huotari, 2010). Results of the study showed that Japanese participants tended to seek health-related information mainly from family members rather than the web, while Finnish participants sought health-related information from the web and from medical professionals. The study indicated the cultural differences between the two groups as the reason for the difference in information-seeking behaviors. The Japanese tended to be more family-centric, thus, trusted health information from family members for minor health matters and sought medical professionals for only serious health matters, while the Finnish tended to rely on healthcare professionals even for minor health problems.

What American Libraries Can Learn From Global Practice
Through international examinations, analyses, and studies conducted via a global perspective, American libraries can learn effective practices that serve to enhance user experiences, particularly with diverse populations, and create a more inclusive and productive platform for information searching. As emphasized throughout the article, the existence of cultural differences creates idiosyncratic search processes. However, the ways in which these distinctions manifest themselves in information-seeking behaviors/patterns serve as a determinant for American libraries to analyze and subsequently implement inclusive practices within system processes, which serve to create a more effective, inclusive, and equitable information environment. For instance, it would prove beneficial for American libraries to consider the ways in which cultural, social, and personal factors such as age, sex, literacy, and ethnicity directly or indirectly affect information patterns/tendencies and seek to provide relevant and inclusive applications such as enhanced language-based opportunities/programming, technological literacy assistance, and culturally relevant works and processes that impact information searching as is represented through Finnish and Japanese students. The distinct juxtapositions between the groups and the results serve to emphasize not only the ways in which these cultural differences complicate notions and processes of information-seeking behavior, but produce applicable and internationally relevant questions such as, “How can information organizations and information professionals alike objectively and effectively utilize and subsequently implement these revelations so as to enhance the experience of diverse users while simultaneously championing equitable information dissemination and access?” As information professionals recognize and embrace that in which information-seeking behaviors are subject to the idiosyncrasies of human culture with distinct associations to ethnic, cultural, social, and geographical factors, opportunities to create and implement inclusive opportunities that seek to serve all populations and reconcile the limitations of standardized and homogenous approaches to information searching.

In Askola, Atsushi, and Huotari (2010) article, the researchers wanted to know if the information-seeking behaviors varied between Japanese and Finnish university students. It is important to note that there have been studies that showed differences in information-seeking habits based upon different criteria, such as the gender or the levels of education, but there was limited information regarding different searching habits of diverse cultures. In their research, Askola, Atsushi, and Huotari (2010) found distinctly different information searching strategies between these two cultural groups. Also, by “having ancestry” to the two countries, provided the international perspective and this helped in adding validity of their results. Ultimately, their findings will help educate American libraries to use more effective and inclusive practices when serving more diverse patrons. As a result, libraries will be better able to serve all patrons by incorporating elements that better serve their more diverse audiences, and that go beyond the “standardized and homogenous” searching methods that have been historically adopted by most informational organizations.

Askola, K., Atsushi, T., & Huotari, M-L. (2010). Cultural differences in the health information environments and practices between Finnish and Japanese university students. Information Research, 15(4). Retrieved from http://informationr.net/ir/15- 4/paper451.html

McKenzie, P. J. (2003). A model of information practices in accounts of everyday-life information seeking. Journal of Documentation, 59(1), 19-40. doi:10.1108/00220410310457993

. Indigenous Australians’ information behavior and internet use in everyday life: An exploratory study.

Reviewed By: Emilee Harrison, Ashleigh Torres, Robin Rogers, Mathew Chase, Ashley Montes

Link to article: http://www.informationr.net/ir/22-1/paper737.html


In “Indigenous Australian’s Information Behaviour and Internet use in Everyday Life: An Exploratory Study,” the authors discuss the beginning stages of an “information behaviour research project undertaken with a rural Indigenous community in South Australia” (Du & Haines, 2017). The study explores the following research questions:
1. What types of information do indigenous people need in their daily lives?
2. How do indigenous people choose information sources?
3. What interactions do indigenous people have with the Internet?
4. How do indigenous people perceive the role of the Internet for the community? (Du & Haines, 2017)

Du and Haines provide a literature review of the relevant literature and previous studies that have been conducted on similar topics (2017). They also provide the research design of their study including how they intended to conduct ethical research, how the data would be collected and how it would be analyzed (Du & Haines, 2017). The results of the study are shown and discussed throughout the latter half of the article. The results are displayed in tables along with each source of information that is within the study carefully described and talked about in detail. The authors also conclude the article and discuss the need for further research (Du & Haines, 2017). In this discussion, Du and Haines include that they were able to conduct this research by “accessing local people and seeking their thoughts and insights” (2017). At the end of this article, the authors include a copy of the survey questions they included on their questionnaire for the audience to see and use in conjunction with the article itself (Du & Haines, 2017).


The authors, as they were not indigenous themselves, sought to achieve an ethical research standard that required trust and respect with the Ngarrindjeri community through regular consultation with the Elders as well as exchanging honorary gifts of print-out copies of research results and weekend computer training. Du and Haines (2017) actively recruited Ngarrindjeri participants through snowball sampling by distributing promotional materials at local community centers, workplaces, and on social media. Recruited participants were asked to recommend people who might be interested in participating in the study. Twenty-one total participants were recruited (10 men; 11 women). Data collection was designed using a dual-method qualitative framework. First, participants answered a questionnaire regarding their everyday information behaviors and Internet interactions. Second, the questionnaire followed up with semi-structured interviews to deepen and clarify understanding of participants’ Internet experiences and attitudes in relation to their community needs. Narrative interviewing was employed as the primary technique to reveal participant insights, which were audio recorded and transcribed for analysis (Du & Haines, 2017). Participants who declined to be audio recorded instead had the researchers take interview notes during the session. As the participants were fluent in both Ngarrindjeri and English, both the questionnaire and the interviews were provided in English. Field observations and notes by researchers through time spent with the community also supplemented the data collection.


The author’s found that the Ngarrindjeri rely on multiple sources (Du & Haines, 2017) to find information relevant to their daily lives such as weather, news, and work related information (Du & Haines, 2017). Researchers organized the resources used by the community into four main categories: internet, interpersonal, mass media, and physical organizations (Du & Haines, 2017). Although Internet and Interpersonal are the most common, researchers found that participants tended to rely on multiple sources for information (Du & Haines, 2017). Participants consider interpersonal resources more reliable because the information is local (Du & Haines, 2017). Particular value is placed on information from Elders and from friends and family (Du & Haines, 2017).
Many participants said they would try interpersonal resources first, and use the internet if that did not work (Du & Haines, 2017). Reliance on social activities for information is consistent with the community’s tradition of sharing indigenous knowledge through basket weaving led by the Elders (Du & Haines, 2017). When they use the internet, non-home internet access accounts for more than half the participants’ internet usage (Du & Haines, 2017). Desktops and mobile phones are the most commonly used devices (Du & Haines, 2017). The “main barriers” to internet usage are “low computer literacy, costs, and the slowness of internet access” (Du & Haines, 2017). The authors found that participants regardless of age tended to believe the internet could be a valuable tool to “communicate local knowledge to a broad community, [and] to encourage cultural sharing” but were concerned about “inappropriate online dissemination” (Du & Haines, 2017).

Unanswered Questions and Future Research

The study conducted by Du and Haines brought to light some interesting unanswered questions and areas of future research as well. Some future areas of research can include if certain members within the indigenous tribe thinks about having some of their knowledge that they are willing to share available in online platforms. Similarly, other indigenous peoples in Australia and New Zealand have developed online platforms that makes certain types of information available to those within the tribe and the public, such as photos or recordings (State Library of Queensland, “Indigenous Knowledge Centres,” 2016). While some Elders in the study did mention this possibility and were hesitant about this aspect of certain types traditional knowledge being accessed to the larger public, it would be interesting to see what other Elders and people in the community would have to say about this aspect, especially in terms of knowledge/information they would like to share. Also, the study itself did not tackle the issue concerning traditional indigenous knowledge either, so there are many types of unanswered questions relating to traditional knowledge, technology, and culture as well.
This study also had some unanswered questions. Some unanswered questions from this study include if any type of solutions were given to the community concerning information gaps, such as a lack of knowledge on how to use certain types of technology, as well as there being few service providers in the community. Also, it was mentioned that about 11% of people in the study use physical organizations, including libraries (Du & Haines, 2017). Since library use was not widely accessed by people in the study, it would be interesting to note any reasons why this may be the case, especially if the library offers the use of their internet/computer resources and other resources as well. Is it the distance, the lack of trust in the institution, the lack of resources pertaining to indigenous needs, or any other factors that may influence their lack of use, especially since people in rural and remote areas tend to use the library to their advantage? This is not only an unanswered question pertaining to the study, but a possible area for future research as well.


There are a number of unanswered questions in this study, primarily pertaining to what barriers are preventing indigenous persons from taking advantage of library resources and what attempts at outreach and restructuring of library systems have been done in order to better meet the needs of these potential patrons.
Given that 21% of indigenous Australians report living in remote or very remote locations it is reasonable to suspect that distance may provide them with a barrier when it comes to accessing information resources through the countries library networks. While the National Library of Australia does have a subsection which focuses on Indigenous culture, that does not mean that it is necessarily accessible to the indigenous communities through the country as it is located in Canberra (National Library of Australia, 2017).
It should also be noted that the sample size for this study was very small, at only 21 people, which means that when the study indicates that 11% of responses reported using library services that amounts to fewer than three participants. The indigenous population of Australia is estimated to be about 669,881 or 3% of the country’s total population, which indicates that further research would be beneficial in order to gain a more thorough understanding of usage practices and community needs (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2011).


Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2011). Estimates of aboriginal and torres strait islander Australians. Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/3238.0.55.001

Du, J. T., and Haines, J. (2017). Indigenous Australians’ information behavior and internet use in everyday life: An exploratory study. Information Research, 22(1). Retrieved from http://www.informationr.net/ir/22-1/paper737.html

National Library of Australia. (2017). Collections: Indigenous. Retrieved from https://www.nla.gov.au/what-we-collect/indigenous

State Library of Queensland. (2016). Indigenous Knowledge Centres. Retrieved from